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BERLIN -- West Germanys government encouraged and covered up a culture of doping among its athletes for decades, according to a comprehensive study released Monday. Puma Rihanna Cz . The report, titled "Doping in Germany from 1950 to today," accuses the Federal Institute of Sport Science of a central role in the government-backed attempt to dope athletes for international success. The report states that the institute (BISp), which was formed under jurisdiction of the Interior Ministry in 1970, attempted to establish "systemic doping under the guise of basic research." The BISp began developing "systemic doping structures" in 1972, financing experiments to "improve" anabolic steroids, conducting extensive research on testosterone, estrogen, hormones, growth hormones and insulin. The 501-page report was published by BISp after some details were disclosed in a newspaper article last weekend. While West German government control over sport was not comparable to that in East Germany, the authors of the report state: "The participation of many national coaches, sports doctors and officials was in a manner conspicuously similar to the systematic doping system of the GDR." Thomas Bach, an IOC vice-president from Germany who is running for president of the Olympic body, said an independent commission had been set up to evaluate the report and make recommendations. "This is a good day for the fight against doping," he said. The study was conducted by researchers under the leadership of Giselher Spitzer at Berlins Humboldt University with another team based in the University of Muenster. It was completed in April but publication had been postponed indefinitely because of issues over publishing names. Pressure to publish the full document grew after the Sueddeutsche Zeitung newspaper released details of the report Saturday. However, the names of athletes appear to have been withheld from the final report. The report says there was no systematic, state-led doping system before the BISp was established, but that its formation led to a "gradual adaptation to the GDR sports system." It states that while some athletes and coaches were opposed to doping, they rarely came forward "as they thought they wouldnt be listened to due to the popularity of doping coaches, athletes and doctors in the media." The investigation was initiated by the German Olympic Sports Confederation in 2008 and commissioned by the BISp, which provided about $700,000 toward the study. Researchers divided the study into three periods: 1950-1972, 1972-1989 and 1989-2007. "The history of doping in the Federal Republic didnt start in 1970 ... but already in 1949 (with the establishment of West Germany)," the report states. Researchers found that the methamphetamine Pervitin, which had been used by German soldiers during World War II, was tested extensively in the 1950s despite being banned. Amphetamines remained in extensive use across many German sports, including cycling and track and field, until 1960, the report says. It quotes Goettingen physician and former soccer player Heinz-Adolf Hepers assertion from 1949 that amphetamine-related substances had already become "normal" in German soccer toward the end of the decade. Cologne doctor and professor Wildor Hollmann, who spoke against the use of anabolic steroids on health and ethical grounds, was financed by the BISp to investigate the "influence of blood transfusions" in 1973. The results revealed a "possible doping effect," according to a BISp file from 1991. Work with the blood-booster EPO began on March 11, 1988 -- two weeks after the Winter Olympics in Calgary, following rumours that Soviet cross-country skiers had used it to improve their performances. The historians uncovered a letter from FIFA medical committee chairman Mihailo Andrejevic regarding "very fine traces" of the banned stimulant ephedrine that had been found in three unnamed German players at the 1966 World Cup. The German soccer federation refused access to its archives, the report says. The researchers also struggled to access official documents covered by a 30-year secrecy rule, and Spitzer told broadcaster RBB Inforadio that all the important files related to doping were destroyed before the project could begin. Files did reveal that anabolic steroids were being used by West German athletes, including runners, rowers, soccer players and cyclists, as early as 1960. Sports organizations played down studies showing the serious side effects of steroids. The researchers concluded that effective doping controls were introduced only in the late 1980s and that doping was prevalent even after 1991. A detailed analysis of the period up to 2008 wasnt possible, the report says, "due to complexity." Dámské Tenisky Puma . Soukalova missed only one target and completed the 15-kilometre course in 40 minutes, 32.6 seconds for both victories in this seasons individual discipline. Darya Domracheva of Belarus was second, 34. Boty Puma LevnÄ› . McCarthy, a player who played some games in the second tier for Wigan at the start of this season, would go on to shine inside Evertons midfield, outplaying the man he was brought in to replace, on one of the grandest stages in English football. On Saturday, it was fitting that Manchester Uniteds most recent dagger into the chest was delivered by Frenchman Yohan Cabaye, a wonderfully gifted central midfielder who put on an outstanding effort for Newcastle at Old Trafford. http://www.botypumafenty.cz/ . Pence singled in the winning run with no outs in the ninth inning to give the Giants a 7-6 victory over the San Diego Padres on Sunday. NEW YORK -- Major League Baseball and the New York Yankees turned down requests Saturday to meet with Alex Rodriguezs camp and the union about the embattled stars expected drug penalty, two people familiar with the talks told The Associated Press. The overtures were made two days before MLB was poised to hand Rodriguez a lengthy suspension for his part in the Biogenesis case. The two people spoke to the AP on condition of anonymity because no public statements were authorized. Rodriguez, meanwhile, was in Trenton, N.J., playing what could be his last game in a while. He started a double play, then drew a walk in the first inning while on a minor league rehabilitation assignment with the Double-A Thunder. He was scheduled to be off Sunday. The All-Star third baseman said Friday night the Yankees tentative plan was for him to join them in Chicago for Monday nights game against the White Sox. Before Rodriguez took the field, his side reached out to the Yankees and union head Michael Weiner contacted MLB Executive Vice-President Rob Manfred. The Yankees and MLB said they had no interest in such talks. There was always the chance, however, that further negotiations could take place at the last minute. The New York Post, Daily News and New York Times reported the discussions earlier Saturday. There hasnt been any definite word on the severity of Rodriguezs looming penalty, with speculation ranging from a lifetime ban to a suspension through the 2014 season. Also possible, according to those familiar with the talks, was a suspension lasting until Aug. 31, 2014, the day before all teams are permitted to expand their rosters from 25 players to 40. The 38-year-old Roodriguez hasnt played in the majors this season. Boty LevnÄ›. The three-time American League MVP is recovering from hip surgery and a strained quadriceps. A day after Rodriguez homered for Trenton, Thunder manager Tony Franklin hedged on whether A-Rod was ready to rejoin the majors. "Thats not for me to say," Franklin said. "His swing is getting better. Hes running better. Hes doing the baseball things OK right now. But thats a different game up there." A sellout crowd was expected and a few minutes before the national anthem, A-Rod chatted up fans near the dugout and fist-pumped a kid, then walked off to have a catch. Rodriguez caught a knuckling line drive by Readings first batter and later fielded a grounder and began an inning-ending double play. Batting second, Rodriguez walked to the plate to Jay-Zs "On To The Next One" and received a mixture of cheers and boos in the first. He fouled off a 2-2 pitch before drawing a walk. Rodriguez slowly went first to third on a double off the right-field wall and was stranded. He also walked the next time he came up while his girlfriend, former pro wrestler Torrie Wilson, held up her cellphone to video the action from a second-row seat behind the plate. In the top of the second, Rodriguez ranged to his right to field a grounder and threw high and wide to second. It was ruled an infield hit, though he probably wouldve made the play a few years ago. The next inning, Rodriguez fielded a slow bouncer down the line and made a strong throw to first to get the out. He heard loud cheers as he jogged slowly to the dugout, looking around and seemingly taking in the crowds appreciation. Cheap NFL Jerseys Cheap NFL Jerseys China Cheap Jerseys From ChinaCheap NFL Jerseys Authentic Wholesale Jerseys China Cheap NFL Jerseys China NFL Cheap Jerseys ' ' '
on December 13 at 08:15 AM

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